Russian Universities

In Russian universities, educational interpretation, the most popular method of AF Shiryaev, first published in 1979. Advanced linguistics considers that productive learning simultaneous translation is impossible without respect for the four key conditions: Compulsory practical improvement of speech and translation skills after mastering the following species oral translation and interpretation: the interpretation of leaf and consecutive interpretation, the duration of translation practice simultaneously perceive the source code, to formulate the text of the translation and pronounce it. In other words, compulsory practical consolidation of the key skill for interpretation. Learn how to keep up with human speech, uttering the source code for the generation of the translated text (regardless of speaker's speech rate); Mandatory work with a system of exercises to correct common errors in the generation of text interpretation (this system of exercises should include a number of political texts, economic and legal subjects). Simultaneous translation as a kind of translation is considered from three different points of view of linguists, psychologists and psycholinguist. Prominent linguists (LS Barkhudarov, AD Schweitzer, VN Commissioners) review and analyze in the main component of the linguistic interpretation, paying little attention extralinguistic factors. They put emphasis on translation as bilingual communicative act with its system of syntactic, semantic and paradigmatic relations. Another point of view of researchers who devote themselves to psychology translation.

Scientists in this direction have focused on human factors, they have been providing the "human component" in the translation process, paying particular attention to psychology, the choice of the translator or other forms of expression in unusual situations. Therefore, supporters psychological direction attaches great importance to study the typology of bilingualism and the role of automatism in the interpretation. The emphasis is on studying the interaction of thinking in the original language and thinking in language. The third point of view – psycholinguistic approach to study interpretation. Psycholinguists consider interpretation as a form of human speech and rechemyslitelnoy activities. In this direction of research the word "activity" is the key.

Activity with the theme and aimed at a specific objective – the generation of translated text. Thus, at the forefront of the psycholinguistic perspective on interpretation of activity theory. As we said above, this kind of translation involved just two types of speech activities – listening (hearing) and speaking. The text of the speaker's original language interpreter may heard only once, by saying the transfer, he can not fix it in a hypothetical error in the absence of pauses in the speech of the speaker. All this testifies to the complexity and unique features of this kind of translation. However, the harder the science, the more excitement in her apprehension, more excitement in the quest to become a consummate master of his craft.