Most natural disasters have on the territories occupied in agriculture and industry and, thus, the most densely populated. Strong winds (hurricanes, typhoons, tornadoes, etc.) are responsible for 36% of the total natural disasters, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions – over 35% of the non-hurricane flooding – up to 22%, other adverse hazards (NOV), together – in 7% of the total number of natural disasters. Russia's territory is subject to exposed almost the entire spectrum of natural hazards and processes, geological and hydrological origin. The total annual economic and social damage on the development of the most dangerous natural process in Russia, according to experts of the Russian Academy of Sciences of 110-140 trillion rubles. The size of a single adverse effects of damage and natural hazards varies from minor impacts to the scattered creating a disaster. Examples of scattered – lightning strikes, bites of poisonous insects and reptiles, car accidents due to poor weather conditions, etc., every time they call small, but the scale of state, a significant loss. A disaster can be defined as an event that could affect normal vital activity of population, economy and job sites causes significant sacrifices or economic damage. An example of the village of Neftegorsk, which was completely destroyed by an earthquake, killing more than 2,000 people confirmed this position.
Therefore, the basic concepts of the RF Law "On protection of population and territories from emergency situations of natural and man-made "from November 11, 1994 adopted the term 'emergency' (disaster), when we are talking about measuring the loss. Adopted in Russia by Type of Disaster Typing and lower limit losses listed above in accordance with the Regulations "On the classification of emergency situations of natural and man-made." Measure socio-economic effects of emergencies of natural origin are varied depending on the interests measuring. These effects are divided into the upfront costs for not having prevented a loss prevention and loss. Unexpected loss (damages) are measured in absolute and relative terms. A measure of absolute loss are the number of victims, damaged buildings, destroyed crops, etc., in physical or monetary terms. Relative losses are measured in fractions of a lost, for example, as a percentage of gross national product, from the average long-term crop, from the initial value of tangible assets. This measurement allows us to estimate the severity and vospolnimost losses.